Prevalence of Pathological Myopia and Its Association with Ocular Disorders


Ashwin Parati
Mrunal Patil
Kalpana Gadsingh
Anup Shah


Introduction: Pathological myopia (PM) is defined as the presence of structural changes due to axial elongation in eyes with high myopia. Numerous vision-threatening conditions are known to be more prevalent in eyes with pathological myopia including retinal detachment, myopic retinoschisis, macular holes, choroidal neovascularization, and chorioretinal atrophy. These pathological changes often lead to progressive loss of vision. Present study was conducted to find out the burden of pathological myopia and its associated factors at a tertiary care centre. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted including a sample size of 345 with at least -5.0 D spherical equivalent of myopia in both eyes. Each subject was interviewed followed by extensive ophthalmologic screening examination, including measurements of visual acuity and fundus examination by Direct & Indirect Ophthalmoscopy. Data was analysed using SPSS ver. 21.0 using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Prevalence of pathological myopia among myopia cases between 7 to 40 years old was 9%. Among 31 cases of pathological myopia, juvenile and youth onset was seen in 29% cases each while early adult onset was seen in 41.9% cases. Prevalence was more in females (12.4%) as compared to males (5.7%). Low visual acuity, high spherical/ cylindrical error and high intra-ocular pressure were significantly associated with pathological myopia. Mean axis length in both right and left eye was significantly more in cases with pathological myopia (p<0.05). Conclusion: Around one in ten myopia cases suffers from pathological myopia. Pathological myopia is more common in males especially during adulthood and is associated with poor visual acuity and axial elongation. Another important finding observed in present study was presence of raised intra-ocular pressure among high myopic cases which can be a risk factor for development of optic neuropathy.


How to Cite
Parati, A., Patil, M. ., Gadsingh, K. ., & Shah, A. . (2022). Prevalence of Pathological Myopia and Its Association with Ocular Disorders. MVP Journal of Medical Sciences, 227–233.


  1. The impact of myopia and high myopia: Proceedings of the Joint World Health Organization–Brien Holden Vision Institute global scientific meeting on Myopia. 2015. pp. 16–18.
  2. Saxena R, Vashist P, Tandon R, Pandey RM, Bhardawaj A, Gupta V, Menon V. Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study). PloS one. 2017; 12(12): e0189774. DOI:
  3. Ohno-Matsui K, Lai TY, Lai CC, Cheung CM. Updates of pathologic myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016; 52: 156–187. DOI:
  4. Wong TY, Ferreira A, Hughes R, Carter G, Mitchell P. Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: an evidence based systematic review. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157: 9–25.e12. DOI:
  5. Hayashi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Shimada N, et al. Long-term pattern of progression of myopic maculopathy: a natural history study. Ophthalmology. 2010; 117: 1595–1611. DOI:
  6. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global prevalence of myopia and high myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123: 1036–1042.
  7. Liu HH, Xu L, Wang YX, Wang S, You QS, Jonas JB. Prevalence and progression of myopic retinopathy in Chinese adults: the Beijing Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010; 117: 1763– 1768. DOI:
  8. McBrien NA, Gentle A. Role of the sclera in the development and pathological complications of myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res 2003; 22(3): 307–38. DOI:
  9. Grossniklaus HE, Green WR. Pathologic findings in pathologic myopia. Retina 1992; 12(2): 127–33. DOI:
  10. Heidary G, Ying GS, Maguire MG, Young TL. The association of astigmatism and spherical refractive error in a high myopia cohort. Optom Vis Sci 2005; 82(4): 244–7. DOI:
  11. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, et al. Global prevalence of myopia and high myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123(5): 1036–1042. DOI:
  12. Varghese RC, Kulkarni UHigh Myopia: A Hospital-Based Study of the Clinical Profile and Visual Impairment. DJO 2020; 31: 30–35. DOI:
  13. Karabulut S, Karti O, Zengin MO, Karabulut M, Kusbeci T. Anterior and Posterior Segment Manifestations of Pathological Myopia: A Clinical Study from Turkish Aegean Region. The Open Ophthalmol. J. 15 Nov 2019; 13(1). DOI:
  14. Tano Y. Pathologic myopia: where are we now? Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1 Nov 2002; 134(5): 645–60. DOI:
  15. Kumar A, Chawla R, Kumawat D, Pillay G. Insight into high myopia and the macula. Indian J Ophthalmol 2017; 65: 85–91. DOI:
  16. Saxena R, Vashist P, Tandon R, Pandey RM, Bhardawaj A, Menon V, et al. Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM study). PLoS One 2015; 10: e0117349. DOI:
  17. Vongphanit J, Mitchell P, Wang JJ. Prevalence and progression of myopic retinopathy in an older population. Ophthalmology 2002; 109: 704–11. DOI:
  18. Asakuma T, Yasuda M, Ninomiya T, Noda Y, Arakawa S, Hashimoto S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for myopic retinopathy in a Japanese population: The Hisayama Study. Ophthalmology 2012; 119: 1760–5. DOI:
  19. Fujiwara T, Imamura Y, Margolis R, Slakter JS, Spaide RF. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 2009; 148: 445–50. DOI:
  20. Jonas JB, Xu L. Histological changes of high axial myopia. Eye. 2014 Feb; 28(2):113. DOI:
  21. Impact of myopia and high myopia: WHO Bulletin. Sydney. 16-18 March 2015. Accessed from
  22. Marcus MW, de Vries MM, Junoy Montolio FG, Jansonius NM. Myopia as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(10): 1989–94e2. DOI:
  23. Joseph DS, Thampi B, Joosadima A, Mohan A. A study on association between intraocular pressure and myopia. Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4: 2202–5. DOI:
  24. Schmid JL, Li RW, E dwards MH, Lew JK. The expandability of the eye in childhood myopia. Curr Eye Res. 2003; 2692: 65–71. DOI:
  25. Morgan IG, Ohno-Matsui K, Saw SM. Myopia. Lancet. 2012; 379(9827): 1739–1748. DOI:
  26. Siegwart JT Jr., Norton TT. Perspective: How might emmetropization and genetic factors produce myopia in normal eyes? Optom Vis Sci 2011; 88: E365–72. DOI:
  27. Curtin BJ, Karlin DB. Axial length measurements and fundus changes of the myopic eye. Am J Ophthalmol 1971; 71(1 Pt 1): 42–53. DOI:

Most read articles by the same author(s)